Intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI) is one of the most widely used insemination method in assisted conception treatments. It is simply the injection of a single sperm cell into one egg. ICSI is especially useful in cases with low sperm count, or poor sperm morphology and also in cases where conventional IVF resulted in poor fertilization.
As ICSI is an easy technique and results in acceptable fertilization rates, it is widely used in most clinics around the world.
Under normal circumstances, sperm penetrates the egg membrane by the aid of its motility and certain organelles (structures). This fertilization procedure enables healthy sperm to be selected while those with abnormal genetic content will be eliminated. During ICSI however, sperm is selected by the embryologist so the selection of unhealthy sperm is impossible. While the risk should be kept to a mininum, it  has to be remembered that embryos arising from unhealthy sperm (or the egg) will be eliminated during development.

To whom ICSI should be applied?
Cases which previously failed conventional IVF attempts, cases with low sperm count, and/or poor sperm morphology or motility, as well as those with poor egg quality can benefit from ICSI. First trial cases where sperm or the egg does not display any structural or physiological abnormality should try conventional IVF.